Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive a child after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. It affects about 20 percent of couples, with male-related problems the cause of 30 percent to 50 percent of infertility. A diagnosis of infertility is not necessarily a verdict of sterility; only 1 percent to 2 percent of infertile couples are actually sterile, and half of those who seek help can eventually bear a child
Male infertility is most commonly caused by sperm disorders such as low sperm count, low sperm motility, malformed sperm or blocked sperm ducts. Further, a temporary drop in sperm production can result from prolonged exposure to heat or to chemicals or medications that affect sperm production. Several diseases also can affect sperm production, including colitis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis/spinal cord injury, mumps and cancer.
If you are unable to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse, both partners should see physicians
Because evaluation of men tends to be noninvasive and easier than that of women, the male partner of an infertile couple should undergo evaluation first. This evaluation includes a complete history and physical examination, as well as other tests:
Urinalysis: An analysis of your urine will provide a reading of protein, sugar and testosterone levels. Abnormal measurements of these substances can indicate diabetes, kidney disease or a testosterone deficiency.